Chemical structure of Nitazoxanide.
Nitazoxanide is supplied as a lyophilized powder. For a 15 mM stock, reconstitute 5 mg of powder in 1.08 ml of DMSO. Working concentrations and length of treatment can vary depending on the desired effect.
Store lyophilized at -20ºC, desiccated. In lyophilized form, the chemical is stable for 24 months. Once in solution, store at -20ºC and use within 3 months to prevent loss of potency. Aliquot to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles.
Molecular Weight: 307.3 g/mol
Molecular Formula: C12H9N3O5S
Solubility: Soluble in DMSO at 50 mg/ml.
Nitazoxanide, also known as NTZ, is a broad-spectrum thiazolide antiparasitic agent that is a noncompetitive inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) (1-3). This small molecule is an effective antiviral agent by activating protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA (PKR), resulting in the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). This method of influencing the host’s antiviral pathways increases the barrier to develop antiviral resistance (4). Nitazoxanide has shown anticancer activity in vivo by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiration. Treatment with Nitazoxanide leads to AMPK activation, inhibition of mTOR, and downregulation of c-Myc and Wnt signaling (5). Nitazoxanide has been found to be a particularly potent c-Myc inhibitor with IC50 values ranging between 10 nM to 500 nM in different cancer cell lines (1). Studies have shown that Nitazoxanide may be an effective treatment against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other coronaviruses (6).
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.